Breast Cancer Colon Cancer Gastric Cancer Lung Cancer Liver Cancer

Rheumatoid arthritis Crohn’s Disease IgA Nephropathy Diabetes Others

Clinical Glycan Biomarkers List with links to the appropriate CarboQuant Standard

Cancer Markers


Aberrant glycosylation

Glycan biomarker


Breast cancer

Increased levels of highly sialylated antenna fucosylated glycans. High G1F, A3F1G1, A4F1G1 and A4F2G2 containing sLex 1
Increased levels of fucosylated and sialylated glycans A2F 2, 3
Increased levels of agalactosyl biantennary glycans G0F and glycans containing sLex epitope A3F1G1 and A2F1G1. Increase A3F1G1 and G1F, d G0F with sLex 4
Increased levels of high-mannose type structures. Man5 5
Increased levels of fucosylated glycans. Decreased leveles of sialylated glycans. G0F, G1F ,G2F, A3G0F 6

Gastric cancer

Decreased levels of fucosylated non- and mono-sialylated glycans. Increased levels of A2 7
Decreased levels of biantennary asialo monogalactosylated glycans, and triantennary glycans carrying 2,3-linked sialic acids.
Increased levels of triantennary glycans carrying 2,6-linked sialic acids, and trisialylated triantennary glycans carrying sialyl Lewis X.
Decrease G1(3), G1(6) Increased A2F on IgG 8

Hepatocellular carcinoma

Decreased levels of a tri- and a tetraantennary glycan. A3G0F, A3G3F, A4 9
Increased levels of the fucosylated triantennary glycan. A3G3F 10
Highly increase in the fucosylation. AFP-L3
Fucosylated glycoform of AFP

Lung cancer

Increased levels of tri- and tetra-antennary highly sialylated glycans, some with antenna and some with core fucosylation.
Decreased levels of biantennary glycans, mostly with core fucose
High Tri- and tetra-sialylated glycans in serum

G0F, G1F ,G2F,

Ovarian cancer Increased levels of G0F, and A3G3F 14
Increased levels of core fucosylated agalactosyl biantennary glycans and glycans containing sialyl Lewis X G0F and sLex 15
Increased levels of tri- and tetra-antennary N-glycans.
Decreased levels of glycans containing a bisecting GlcNAc.
bA2F,A3G0F, A3G3F, A4 16
Increased levels of sialylated glycans and a small group of truncated glycans.
Decreased levels of several neutral glycans, including high-mannose-type glycans
MGn(3)F, MGn(6), A2 17
MUC1 O-glycans in serum Sialylated core 1type O-glycans 18
Prostate cancer Increased core fucosylation and increase a2,3-sialic acid compared with BPH patients serum Decreased A3G3
Decreased A4FS4
Increased A4S4
Decreased sialylation of PSA subforms in seminal plasma F3 PSA subform with low S1 and S2
F3 PSA subform with high a2,3 sial and low core fucose
F4 PSA subform with high S1
20, 21
Poor prognosis is associated with decreased levels of fucosylated glycans and increased levels of sialylated compounds 22
Pancreatic cancer Increase of core fucosylation

and Lex in tri-antennary glycans

Fucosylated haptoglobin 23, 24, 25

Colon cancer

Levels of FUT3-7 and FUT9, responsible for a1,3-4 fucosylation at haptoglobin Asn241 a1,3-4 fucosylation at haptoglobin Asn241 2628


Non-Cancer Markers

Disease Aberrant glycosylation Glycan biomarker ref

Rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic lupus erythrematosus, Sjogren’s syndrome, Juvenile-onset chronic arthritis, Crohn´s syndrome, Tuberculosis

Elevated proportion of IgG G0 glycoforms

Reduced degree of antennae sialylation and galactosylation for IgG N glycans

G0F 29-32
Follicular lymphoma IgG and IgM variable region glycans containing one or more oligomannose sugars. Significant increase in potential glycosylation sites in the variable region. Man5-Man9 32
IgA nephropathy Aberrant glycosylation has been linked to diseases in which there is reduced clearance of IgA. Aberrant O-glycosylation of serum IgA1 in patients is ascribed to a decrease in terminal galactosylation and sialylation. Man5, G0F


Primary Sjogren’s syndrome Levels of serum IgA1 and IgA2 are elevated as a result of increased sialylation of the glycans.
Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation Glycan analysis of serum proteins, such as the Igs that collectively account for up to 50% of the serum glycoproteins, provides diagnostic information that can pinpoint the faulty step in the pathway. monoantennary fucosylated and α2,3 sialylated
schistosomiasis unusual O-glycan, glycan epitopes of soluble egg antigens of Schistosoma mansoni Fuc1-2Fuc1-3GalNAc1- 4(Fuc1-2Fuc1-3)
maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) Lewis a in tri- biantennary N-glycans in serum and plasma Lewis a in tri- biantennary N-glycans in serum and plasma 33
Diabetes Severity and duration of glucose dysregulation in individuals can be estimated by monitoring the levels of O-GlcNAc simultaneously at specific sites on several key proteins in erythrocytes. Increase in antenna fucosylation of AGP in plasma from patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus O-GlcNAc 34
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus increased levels of glycans carrying α1-6 linked fucose G0F, G1F ,G2F,
aging Individuals of ages above 50 had increased levels of non-galactosylated glycans, while the levels of galactosylated structures decreased with increasing age. Bisecting N-acetylglucosamine showed an age-dependency: bisecting GlcNAc is generally increasing with age and seems to reach a plateau at 50 years of age. bA2F
aging, smoke and lipid profiles Very large biological variability in glycosylation
Alzheimer’s disease The glycosylation pattern of Reelin decrease in fucose content